Bali Process was established in 2002 in a regional development meeting which Australia and Indonesia hosted, with the aim of taking a different approach to the human smuggling, human trafficking and other related crimes. Two ad hoc groups were created with the aim that practical measures should be improved to fight against these problems. Nowadays; more than 45 member states including many countries of origin, transit countries and countries of destination, and international organizations such as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, International Organization for Migration, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime participate in Bali Process.
Bali Process increases effectively the regional awareness about the fight against human smuggling, human trafficking and other international organized crimes. This process improves the applied strategies in response and practical cooperation.
In Bali Process, 7 meetings at ministerial level have been carried out as of 2002. These are as follows;
1- Regional Ministries Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 26-28th February 2002
2- Second Regional Ministries Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 27th March 2003
3- Third Regional Ministries Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 14-15th April 2009
4- Fourth Regional Ministries Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 29-30th 2011
5- Fifth Regional Ministries Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 2nd April 2013
6- Sixth Regional Ministerial Conference: Bali, Indonesia (23 March 2016)
7- Seventh Ministerial Conference, Indonesia, Bali (6-7 August 2018)
The Ad Hoc Group was established in Bali Ministries Meeting in April 2009 with the aim of developing and pursuing practical measures to inform future regional cooperation on human smuggling, human trafficking and the irregular movement of people. The members of Ad Hoc Group are Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, New Zealand, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, The United Arab Emirates, The United States of America, Vietnam countries and also United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and International Organization for Migration (IOM).
In 2011, Regional Cooperation Framework (RCF) was established to support the regional development by aiming at enhancing the region’s response to irregular movement through consistent processing of asylum claims, durable solutions for refugees, the sustainable return of those not owed protection and targeting of human smuggling enterprises. Consequently, The Regional Support Office was officially opened in Bangkok on 10 September 2012 with the aim of facilitating the implementation of Regional Cooperation Framework. The Office provides a central point for information sharing between States on refugee protection and international migration.
Member States: Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Kampuchea, China, North Korea, Fiji, France, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Kiribati, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, South Korea, Samoa, Singapore, Solomonian Islands, Syria, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor, Turkey, Vanuatu, The United Arab Emirates, The United States of America, and Vietnam.
Other Participating Countries; Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, Germany, Italy, Holland, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom.
International Organizations; APC, ICMPD, IGC, IFRC, ICRC, INTERPOL, ILO, UNDP, World Bank.
The core objectives of the Bali Process are:
· The development of more effective information and intelligence sharing; · Improved cooperation among regional law enforcement agencies to deter and combat human smuggling and trafficking networks; · Enhanced cooperation on border and visa systems to detect and prevent illegal movements; · Increased public awareness in order to discourage these activities and warn those susceptible; · Enhanced effectiveness of return as a strategy to deter human smuggling and trafficking through conclusion of appropriate arrangements; · Cooperation in verifying the identity and nationality of illegal migrants and trafficking victims; · The enactment of national legislation to criminalize human smuggling and trafficking; · Provision of appropriate protection and assistance to the victims of trafficking, particularly women and children; · Enhanced focus on tackling the root causes of illegal migration, including by increasing opportunities for legal migration between states; · Assisting countries to adopt best practices in asylum management, in accordance with the principles of the Refugees Convention.