A series of protests and uprisings which began in Tunisia and Egypt affected almost all Arab countries and spread to Syrian Arab Republic as of 15 March 2011. Syria slid into chaos by the spiraling conflicts and domestic problems in some areas; hundreds of people were killed and injured.
As humanitarian crisis in Syria grew more, restlessness in Turkish-Syrian borders increased. That approximately 300-400 Syrian nationals arrived at Cilvegözü border gate in district of Yayladağı of Hatay province in 29 April 2009 was the first population movement from Syria to Turkey. The necessary measures were taken during the movement; after crossing the border 252 Syrian nationals accommodated temporarily in a sports hall in Hatay province and food were supplied.
After Syrian nationals entered to Turkey, firstly their body search is completed. They are registered with their identity cards or by depending on their verbal statement accompanied by an interpreter if they do not have an identity card.
An old tobacco building in district of Yayladağı was decided for the first tent city. After tents, mobile kitchens and shower cabins were placed and some arrangements were settled, a first group of people were transferred here. Because of the ongoing entries, Altınözü tent city in 9 June 2011 and Boynuyoğun tent city were established in 12 June 2011. As of 9 March 2015; Services to Syrian nationals are provided with 55.237 settlements including 11.857 containers, 43.380 units and tent cities in 10 different provinces. The number of Syrian nationals who reside in accomodation centres is 246.730 as of 9 March 2015.
Between 29 April 2011 and 27 May 2014;
The total number of Syrian nationals who arrive to accommodation centres is 491.190
The total number of Syrian nationals who return to Syria by leaving accommodation centres is 270.702.
Because of mass influx of displaced persons, Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) is determined as responsible institution inside the camps. Establishment of tent cities was managed by Turkish Red Crescent.
In coordination of AFAD; Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Health, Ministry of National Education, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Finance, Presidency of General Staff, Governorship of Hatay, Presidency of Religious Affairs, Ministry of Customs and Trade and Red Crescent work in close collaboration.
In the accommodation centers which were established by means of funds provided by Prime Ministry; school, mosque; trade, police and health centers, press information centre, playgrounds, TV rooms, potable water system, sewerage system, some equipment such as transformers and generators are placed. In addition, accommodation in tent cities and containers; food, health, security, education, religious, translation, telecommunication and banking services and social activities are provided by relevant institutions.
Turkey has behaved realistically considering the steps and measures which ıt has taken against the mass influx of displaced persons. On 30/03/2012, Ministry of Interior constituted a Directive concerning the admission and accommodation of the nationals of the Syrian Arab Republic and stateless people residing in the Syrian Arab Republic who collectively seek asylum in Turkey.
Temporary protection including access to receiving State, implementation of the non-refoulement principle and providing basic human rights standards with the aim of providing immediate asylum to displaced persons in the event of a mass influx is the spirit of the Directive.
In Article 91 of Law No: 6458 on Foreigners and International Protection; Temporary Protection is defined as the following:
“Temporary protection may be provided for foreigners who have been forced to leave their country, cannot return to the country that they have left, and have arrived at or crossed the borders of Turkey in a mass influx situation seeking immediate and temporary protection.”
“ The actions to be carried out for the reception of such foreigners into Turkey; their stay in Turkey and rights and obligations; their exit from Turkey; measures to be taken to prevent mass influxes; cooperation and coordination among national and international institutions and organisations; determination of the duties and mandate of the central and provincial institutions and organisations shall be stipulated in a Directive to be issued by the Council of Ministers.”
“Identify methods and measures to be employed in case of a mass Influx” is among the duties of Migration Policies Board which was established by Law on Foreigners and International Protection.
Among the duties of Directorate General of Migration Management (DGMM) are:
to provide secretariat services for the Migration Policies Board and follow up on the implementation of the decisions of the Board;
Carrying out the activities and transactions regarding the temporary protection is among the duties of the Directorate General of Migration Management.
Temporary Protection Regulation (Council of Ministers Decision No: 2014/6883) dated 13/10/2014 was published in the framework of Article 91 of Law No. 6458 on Foreigners and International Protection (LFIP).